Original article: http://www.tworowtimes.com/opinions/opinion/meet-ian-mosby-man-exposed-canadas-experiments-aboriginals/
Ian Mosby, a post-doctoral researcher in the history of science at the University of Guelph, was investigating Canada’s nutrition policies during the Second World War when he saw a paper by a federal scientist comparing Aboriginal children with white children. Scientific curiosity had Mosby wondering where this data had come from, but tracking it down did more than just sate his interest. Mosby’s digging led him to one of the biggest stories ever told of biomedical research in the North, a story of experiments on Aboriginals in the 1940s and 50s that ranks among the most unethical research projects in Canadian history.
In the wake of Mosby’s exposé I wrote about the need for an investigation into these experiments, but that wasn’t the end of my interest in this dark era. I wanted to know about Mosby’s process, the behind the scenes story of how one historian’s digging unveiled what otherwise likely would have remained hidden. Through interviews with Mosby and others I learned how light was shone into dark corners, and how difficult it is to pull information out of the shadows.
Mosby’s research sent him down a few blind alleys as he searched, unsuccessfully, for the private papers of prominent scientists involved in the experiments on Aboriginal children. At Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa, he requested publicly accessible files from the federal government’s Nutrition Division, but the results were hit and miss. “I’d order a lot of files which would say ‘Health-Residential Schools’ and I’d get the file and it would just be empty,” Mosby told me in an interview in August. When actual documents did arrive, he said, “you can just go through boxes and boxes. Most of them are useless, and hopefully you find something.”
Working around changing rules for when it was permissible to use a camera at the budget-slashed, short-staffed Archives, Mosby photographed any documents that looked marginally relevant. Returning home, it would take him about a week to read the material he shot in one day. Supplementing the archival material with research papers he’d pulled from digitized materials at university libraries, Mosby eventually put enough together to write an academic exposé on the experiments that were carried out on Aboriginal adults who lived on reserves in Northern Manitoba, and children at six residential schools across the country, from the 1940s through to the early 1950s.
In the early 1940s, scientists working with the federal government first documented malnourishment on the reserves, where some people were getting by on an average diet that provided just 1470 calories—a caloric content similar to the diet used to induce starvation in the famous Minnesota Starvation Experiment of 1944-1945. Based on that figure, Mosby determined that what would have been needed was “emergency food relief.” But that’s not what happened. Instead, the federal researchers divided the adults on the reserves into two groups. They provided vitamin supplements of thiamine, ascorbic acid, and riboflavin to one, while the other served as a control, with both groups undergoing medical exams including photos of their eyes, gums, and tongues.
Nutrition was a relatively young field in the 1940s and scientists were theorizing about the general effects of supplementing a diet with vitamins and minerals. Mosby thought that what drove the experiment on the reserves was “the nutrition experts’ desire to test their theories on a ready-made ‘laboratory’ populated with already malnourished human ‘experimental subjects.”
A few years later, the tests at the residential schools began. At a residential school on Vancouver Island researchers kept Aboriginal children on less than half the amount of milk recommended for children in the rest of Canada. They did this for two years, to establish a ‘baseline.’ For the next three years they added extra milk, to see what tripling the kids’ intake would do. In Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia, the scientists used students to test the utility of ascorbic acid, or Vitamin C, to prevent gum disease. Since dental care could have affected the results, the team stopped Indian Health Services dentists from visiting the study schools.
In an interview with Ottawa journalist David Napier in 2000, Lionel Pett, the biochemist and medical doctor who supervised the research in the schools, defended his work. Pett said that withholding dental care “was not a deliberate attempt to leave children to develop [cavities] except for a limited time or place or purpose, and only then to study the effects of Vitamin C or fluoride.”
His argument would not be persuasive today. “It’s very easy to say that this could never happen now,” said Susan Zimmerman, executive director of the federal Secretariat on Responsible Conduct of Research, in an interview. “Scientific goals and ethics are not always one and the same; you have to sometimes adapt your scientific goals.”
Zimmerman recently led the development of the second edition of the Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS), the rules that now guide research on people in Canada. In the guide, one chapter is specifically devoted to rules for research with Aboriginal communities. Today, Zimmerman said that if her office receives allegations of unethical research they can require the scientist’s institution to investigate and, if the ethical breach is serious, the institution and her department can take recourse against the researcher.
Mosby’s paper was accepted by the journal Histoire Sociale/Social History and once it was published, he honed his social media skills, with cause. At 33—and as a new father—Mosby is nearly jobless. His post-doctoral fellowship at Guelph expires in November, and career prospects in the history of science are not good. Last year in Canada there were just three job openings in the field.
Mosby’s paper came out on a Friday in mid-July. That morning he wrote on his blog: “I’m excited to see that my newest article, ‘Administering Colonial Science: Nutrition Research and Human Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and Residential Schools, 1942–1952,’ has just come out…” At 7 a.m. he tweeted the title and citation, tweeting again a few minutes later, “Surely the most emotionally draining research project I’ve ever worked on…” A fellow historian tweeted a link which got to Bob Weber, who covers the North for Canadian Press. As he read the abstract, Weber said when we talked recently, “I thought right away, ‘This is a good story, this has to be told.’” He phoned a press officer at the University of Guelph but she had never heard of the article, so he tweeted Mosby, sending his number and requesting an interview. Mosby said afterward, “I suddenly realized that I needed to get ready.”
Mosby sent Weber his article, but put off the interview for three days in order to reread his paper and its 85 footnotes, focusing on how to answer questions carefully “and not say anything stupid.” Later he tweeted that he was “inarticulate,” adding, “Kept telling myself, ‘keep it simple, don’t say too much.’ Instead I just talked and talked. Hopefully turns out fine. Guy seemed nice.”
Weber’s Canadian Press article came out on July 16th, the first day of the Assembly of First Nations’ annual meeting. The Chiefs issued an emergency resolution condemning the experiments, Mosby did 20 interviews in about 24 hours, the CBC covered the story intensively, and, the next week, Aboriginal groups held rallies in cities across the country calling for the government to honour the Prime Minister’s apology for the residential schools and release all documents about the nutrition research.
The agency with the power to investigate Mosby’s findings is the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), set up to examine the horrors of the residential schools as part of the government’s $1.9 billion settlement of residential school lawsuits. A spokesperson for Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada told reporters that the agency had turned over 900 documents about the nutrition research to the Commission, and the Commission’s Senior Communications Advisor, Heather Frayne, later confirmed that the government provided those materials, prepared during the residential schools’ litigation, prior to Mosby’s article appearing. But the Commission was having trouble accessing additional archival materials—a longstanding problem.
In 2012, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission took the dispute over archives to an Ontario court, and in January 2013 the court directed the government to “provide all relevant documents to the TRC…unlimited by where the documents are located within the government of Canada.” Even with the court ruling, the process has been moving slowly.
Mosby’s findings may have had an effect. In early August, researchers for the Commission, funded by Aboriginal Affairs, entered Library and Archives Canada for a three-month stay, contacting Mosby for advice about how to identify documents related to the nutrition experiments. Yet some documents, it seems, are inaccessible.
“The government is refusing to release the information from Indian Hospitals and TB Sanatoria,” Mosby said. “They say it’s private information and they see it as not connected to the residential schools settlement even though children were often sent to these hospitals and sanatoria for years and years at a time.”
It’s not clear who is responsible for sealing the hospital records. A spokesperson for the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, Scott Hutchinson, said in an e-mail that his office searched their database “and we were unable to find any record of having looked into issues of Aboriginal health records for individuals in residential schools.” Erica Meekes, a press secretary at Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, said in an e-mail that a researcher would “have to contact Health Canada for health records” and Health Canada has not yet been able to reply to my questions.
Maureen Lux of Brock University in St. Catherine’s, Ontario offered an example of the sorts of evidence historians are missing. Investigating the history of Indian Health Service (IHS) hospitals for her next book, she discovered that in the 1960s, when the IHS hospital in Edmonton was scheduled for closure, local doctors lobbying to keep it open referred to its legacy as “the prime testing site” of streptomycin, an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis in the 1940s and 50s. But Lux has not been able to find records of those tests, and she said she assumes they’re marked private. “I have no doubt that they’re in the National Health and Welfare archival documents,” she said. “As with most bureaucracies, they had phenomenal record-keeping.”
In place of records, Lux is conducting interviews. She teaches in St. Catherine’s, Ontario but I caught her in Saskatoon, and two days later she would drive 400 kilometers south to a town of less than 700 people because a woman on the prairies had agreed to talk about her stay in an Indian Hospital. “When I get these opportunities it’s not like I can say, ‘Well, I’ll do it another time,’” she said. Every Aboriginal elder she’s spoken to has told her “they felt like they were being used as guinea pigs, that there were experiments.” But still, she hasn’t found records of the research.
In September, Mosby met with Mi’kmaq elders who survived the school where the Vitamin C study took place. “One of the things that’s happened almost every time I’ve talked to a survivor or an elder is suggestions of more experiments,” he said. Mosby has been following up on letters he’s received from residential school survivors since his article came out, including one in August from an anonymous writer who talked about communities where dentists may have been literally pulling teeth for research purposes. John Milloy, a professor at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, told me he saw suggestions of “dental experimentation” in files he examined for his 1999 book on the residential schools, A National Crime.
To Mosby the bottom line is simple: “When Aboriginal people say that they were experimented on, we need to take that seriously and look into it.”
As of late October, the Truth & Reconciliation Commission team at Library and Archives Canada has identified 4,000 health-related documents deemed worthy of digitizing, according to the Commission’s Heather Frayne. But the government has yet to provide other relevant documents from the Archives and time is running out: the Commission is set to shut down in July 2014,though its chair recently said he may ask the court to extend its mandate due to the continued wait for materials. Susan Zimmerman with the federal Secretariat on Responsible Conduct of Research said her office is prepared to handle complaints of unethical research from the recent past. But, she said, ordering an investigation of research conducted decades ago is “utterly outside” her authority.
Yet for the historians, they just cannot walk away from the stories. Mosby, who said he is “applying for any job I can find,” has submitted a grant proposal to continue his digging via partnerships with Aboriginal communities, while Lux thinks the best route may be for her sources to request their own archival records—and she already sent one elder the request form. “Next time I see him I’ll ask him if he did it,” she said, “and if not, I’ll fill it in and do it for him.”
Miriam Shuchman is a physician-journalist and a CSWA board member. On November 19th she’ll be on a panel at Massey College, Physician Journalists: melding two professions.
There will be a rally for the Native/Latino Club at Ingraham High School at noon Monday, 10/27 by the flagpole.
Below is a letter to Ingraham High School’s principal:
October 19, 2014
Dear Mr. Floe,
Open until filled
Applications will be reviewed as they are received
JOURNEY LEVEL MECHANIC
Multiple positions available
Under direction, employees in this classification perform skilled mechanical tasks in preventive maintenance, troubleshooting and repair of natural gas and diesel powered vehicles and equipment. Essential functions: systematic diagnosing of malfunctions to include fuel, electrical systems, programmable logic controls and mechanical systems; repairs, adjusts or replaces complete or integral parts of natural gas, diesel and gasoline engines, transmissions, drive trains and differentials, lubrication, cooling, exhaust and air or hydraulic systems; removes, rebuilds and replaces automatic transmissions in buses, trucks and automobiles; inspects, adjusts, troubleshoots and repairs bus door operation, air ride systems, steering systems, and wheelchair lifts; makes bus changes throughout the Pierce Transit service area; notifies the Fleet Assistant Manager, or delegate, of necessary repairs that had not been previously assigned; enters work order data on Agency personal computers; maintains a clean and orderly work area; and performs other related duties as assigned.
Starting Wage: $28.24 per hour Wage Range: $28.24 – $30.52 per hour
Required: Any one of the following: 1) 3 years of journey-level mechanical work experience in transit, bus or over-the-road coach maintenance. Experience must include at least one year of heavy duty diesel mechanic work or work on alternative fueled spark ignited engines; OR 2) Completion of a recognized 2 year diesel mechanic vocational course of study plus 2 years journey-level mechanical work; OR 3) Certification as a journey level diesel mechanic by a private or public agency recognized by Pierce Transit; OR 4) Completion of a recognized 4-year diesel mechanic apprentice program. Desired: Journey level mechanical work experience on natural gas or propane-powered spark ignited vehicles (bus or truck) or equipment.
Knowledge and Abilities:
Knowledge of: Methods, materials, tools, and standard practices related to the maintenance and repair of heavy-duty vehicles and equipment; principles of spark-ignited or diesel powered engines; safety precautions followed in heavy equipment repair shops. Ability to: use jacks, wrenches, grease guns, hydraulic hoists, cleaning materials and other tools and equipment used in the service and repair of heavy equipment; understand and carry out oral and written instructions; work with other employees in a directed work team environment; conceptualize required work through personal observation or a verbal description and determine what is necessary to obtain quality results; perform computerized work order procedures; pass a job related examination; pass federally required drug and alcohol testing; drive all job related vehicles and maintain a valid Washington State driver’s license and CDL as required.
Must be willing to work any shift (assignment to swing shift, graveyard and/or weekends likely). Must possess a complete set of heavy equipment tools with a roll-a-way toolbox and a valid Washington State Driver’s License at the time of hire. Must be able to obtain a Class B Commercial Driver’s License permit (with Skills Test Results form) within thirty days of hire and obtain a Class B CDL with Air Brake and Passenger endorsements within 90 days of hire. Must have the ability to perform the essential functions of the job as described above including the ability to maneuver objects weighing up to fifty pounds.
How to Apply:
Submit a completed Pierce Transit application form and supplemental questionnaire clearly showing how you meet the minimum qualifications listed above. Applications will be reviewed as they are received. Résumés will be accepted only if they are attached to a completed Pierce Transit application form. Application packets may be obtained at http://www.piercetransit.org/careers, from the Pierce Transit administrative building located at 3701 96th Street SW, PO Box 99070 Lakewood, WA 98496-0070 or by calling 253.581.8000. Completed packets may be returned to the PO Box listed above, email@example.com, via fax at 253-984-8224, or to the Pierce Transit administrative building.
The most competitively qualified applicants who meet the position qualifications will be invited to appear before an oral review panel. Selection of applicants for referral to the panel will be determined by the information supplied on the application and accompanying documents. The most competitive applicants who successfully complete the oral review process will be invited to participate in a practical exam. Selection of finalists will be made from those who successfully complete the practical exam; selection process may include a final interview with the hiring authority. It is the responsibility of the applicant to supply sufficient information and detail on the application materials to permit the Agency to properly determine the applicant’s qualifications, abilities, and attributes as they relate to the position.
Open until filled
SENIOR MARKETING DESIGN SPECIALIST
Under direction, acts as lead designer to conceptualize, develop, and coordinate a variety of communication projects and campaigns targeting internal and external audiences. Collaborates with Agency staff on presentation, promotional, educational, and branding projects. Essential Functions: Works closely with agency staff regarding specific requests and general statements of need; analyzes needs, communication objectives and target audiences, then recommends creative direction and appropriate deliverables to achieve campaign or project success within budget and deadline constraints; assists groups in reaching consensus; acts as lead designer for the agency to develop and produce presentation, promotional and educational materials such as Pierce Transit’s route and schedule book covers, direct mail campaigns, route promotion campaigns, customer awareness and educational campaigns, community outreach projects, internal communications programs, brochures, online and print ads, poster, fliers, logos, stationery, special project template systems, bus shelter ad display posters, A-boards, exterior and interior transit displays, outdoor billboards, banners, fleet graphics and paint schemes, and full vinyl bus wraps; provide back up and fill in for Webmaster in maintaining, updating, and designing Pierce Transit’s public website; may write and edit copy for posting Twitter feed and Facebook posts as requested; serves as primary graphic designer and part of a collaborative decision-making group for Downtown On the Go; creates and sustains brand integrity throughout all campaigns and visual efforts; makes production vendor recommendations; communicates with print and production vendors and other contracted service providers; researches materials and production methods; initiates and manages Request for Quote processes; monitors production accuracy and quality throughout proofing process; performs quality check of final product; prepares and maintains records related to work performed and projects in process; archives final art and communication files; manages graphic standards and styles manual development; educates Agency staff regarding graphic styles compliance and benefits of brand awareness; represents Marketing as brand advisor for projects such as new vehicle paint schemes and graphics, uniform updates and additions, and facility color palettes; performs photographic duties; assists in building and maintaining marketing photo library; and performs other duties of a similar nature and level as assigned.
HIRING RANGE: $48,728- $57,256 annually, paid on a bi-weekly basis
Required: Associate’s Degree in Graphic Design, Visual Arts & Communications, Marketing or a related field and two years’ related experience; or, an equivalent combination of education and experience sufficient to successfully perform the essential duties of the job such as those listed above. Desired: Website development and social media experience. Special Requirements: A valid Washington State driver’s license may be required.
HOW TO APPLY:
To be considered, applicants must submit a cover letter, resume, completed Pierce Transit application form and supplemental questionnaire (with samples) which clearly show how you meet the minimum qualifications listed above. Application materials may be obtained at http://www.piercetransit.org/careers. Completed materials may be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org or via fax at 253-984-8224, or to PO Box 99070, Lakewood, WA 98496-0070, Attn: HR.
Open Until Filled
PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICER
(Specially Commissioned Washington Peace Officer)
Females & Minorities Encouraged To Apply
**This is not a security guard or a police officer position. It is very unique and the first of its kind in Washington State. Pierce Transit Public Safety Officers hold a “Special Commission” and are Specially Commissioned Peace Officers. They are not fully commissioned law enforcement officers, do not carry firearms when performing their duties and do not have full powers of arrest as defined by RCW 10.93.020(5).
Under direction, provides system security for Pierce Transit’s assets, employees, and customers. Essential functions: Issues passenger exclusion orders according to established procedures as part of the exclusion program. Issues Notices of Infraction pursuant to RCW 7.80.050. Conducts physical security assessments of transit facilities, reports inoperable equipment, physical security breaches, all threats to assets, employees and customers. Conducts thorough patrols on foot and on bicycles of various parking structures, park and ride facilities, transit centers etc., as directed. Rides the transit system buses as a means of transportation from various locations and provides a uniformed presence on board the buses. Uses issued radio and cell phone to communicate security related information to supervisor and/or police. Completes various reports including the Daily Field Activity Report, Security Incident Reports, Monthly Reports, and Alarm Reports. Enters information into security database. Searches transit facilities and vehicles for suspicious devices, and/or people. Answers customers’ complaints and requests for assistance. May serve as a Field Training Officer (FTO) to other Public Safety Officers. With the use of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), conducts active surveillance of various locations, captures video evidence for the use in criminal and civil proceedings, listens and responds to radio traffic, responds to employee reports of suspicious activity, investigates and reports suspicious activity, notifies law enforcement of criminal activity and prepares detailed, specific reports; takes photographs of evidence for reporting purposes. Conducts traffic control and employee escorts as requested. Administers First Aid and CPR if needed.
Starting Wage: $18.31 per hour
Required Knowledge and Abilities:
Knowledge of: Policies and procedures regarding access to buildings, vehicles and property; general safety precautions and fire safety procedures; methods in communicating and dealing effectively with staff, customers and members of the public; first aid and other basic first responder techniques; effective methods of observation and report writing. Skills: Use of basic communication devices such as cellular phones, radios, computers, direct connect technology; use of monitoring devices such as CCTV; administering first aid; use of fire extinguishers; observing behavior, gathering pertinent information and reporting facts accurately and concisely; verbally diffusing or de-escalating tense, intimidating or threatening situations; remaining calm and focused in situations where personal safety or safety of others may appear to be at risk; understanding and applying written and verbal directions; using sound, independent judgment within the scope of authority, policies, and procedures; maintain positive working relationships with staff, customers and supporting organizations, such as law enforcement, to promote a sense of confidence in the safe and secure delivery of transit services.
Required: High school graduation or GED. One year of experience in the public sector security field, military police, corrections, or a related field. No major traffic violations within the last 5 years, no felony convictions, no misdemeanor convictions involving drugs, moral turpitude, or theft. Desired: Experience in public transportation security. Special Requirements: Must be able to pass 40-hour police cyclist course. Must be able to work a flexible schedule including weekends and night shifts. Must be available to respond to security incidents throughout the service area. Must be able to obtain a valid Washington State driver’s license prior to employment and successfully pass a thorough criminal and civil background check.
How to Apply:
To be considered, the following documents are REQUIRED and must be submitted at time of application: a completed Pierce Transit application form, background questionnaire, supplemental questionnaire, resume with email address included, certification of standards, and notarized criminal background release form clearly showing how you meet the minimum qualifications listed above. Application materials may be obtained from http://www.piercetransit.org/careers, at Pierce Transit headquarters, 3701 96th Street SW, P.O. Box 99070, Lakewood, WA 98496 or by calling 253-581-8000.
Applicants who, in the judgment of Human Resources, most closely match the requirements of the position must complete an online personal history questionnaire to be used for a psychological and polygraph exam, be fingerprinted, provide complete references, successfully pass an extensive background investigation, a series of interviews, a bicycle assessment and a physical with drug screen. Candidates are subject to non-consideration at any step that disqualifies them in the process. Selection of applicants for further consideration will be determined by a review and evaluation of the information provided by the applicants throughout the process. It is the responsibility of the applicant to supply sufficient information and detail to permit the Agency to properly evaluate the applicant’s qualifications, abilities and suitability for the position. Applicants hired for the position must successfully complete in-house training/academy within the 6-month probationary period.
Open until filled
Under direction, administers workers’ compensation loss control and prevention programs through identification and mitigation of risk, claims handling, and reporting in accordance with state law and regulations, oversight of the Agency’s third-party administrator (TPA), supervision of the employee return-to-work (Light Duty) program, and the development of loss prevention programs and policies. Essential functions: Coordinates worker compensation claims administration process, including periodic reporting, conducting investigations, and responding to appeals to assure compliance with State and Federal laws; obtains appropriate medical information; coordinates supplemental payments; tracks, pays and controls workers’ compensation program costs; administers the contract for the TPA for self-insured workers’ compensation program; interacts continually with third-party administrator related to allowances, disputes, closure strategy, retention of outside counsel, and assignment of experts; controls contract costs and evaluates overall performance quality; administers the Light Duty program which includes collecting appropriate medical information, assigning duties throughout the Agency, tracking employee time, and coordinating employees’ return to job-of-injury with supervisors and Human Resources; performs onsite ergonomic evaluations; reviews ADA service applications and determines eligibility; develops defense and claims settlement strategies; attends depositions and mediations; implements, and communicates policies, procedures, and best practices related to workers’ compensation claims administration; prepares and maintains a variety of statistical and financial records and reports; serves as a technical resource; provides education and training; represents and participates in a variety of meetings and briefings; promotes safety and accident prevention by identifying and raising the Agency’s awareness of workplace hazards; assists the Safety Officer in conducting accident and accident prevention investigations; actively participates in organizational efforts to ensure that the work environment and Agency equipment meet or exceed WISHA and OSHA standards; conducts research and performs work on related projects and committees as needed; performs other duties of a similar nature and level as assigned.
HIRING RANGE: $58,874 – $72,121 annually, paid on a bi-weekly basis
Required: Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration, Public Administration, or a related field and three years’ professional level experience administering a workers’ compensation program; or, an equivalent combination of education and experience sufficient to successfully perform the essential duties of the job such as those listed above.
KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITIES:
Knowledge of: applicable federal, state, and local laws, rules, and regulations; public transportation service administration principles; principles, practices, procedures and terminology related to workers’ compensation and risk management; effective workers’ compensation claims administration procedures; statistical analysis and theory; medical and vocational rehabilitation terminology; report and document writing techniques; public relations principles; project management methods; budgeting principles; customer service principles; and modern office equipment.
Skill in: interpreting and applying applicable laws, codes, regulations and standards; analyzing and interpreting fiscal, statistical, operational data and/or other related information; conducting detailed investigations, research, and analysis; conflict resolution; preparing reports, presentations, training materials, promotional materials; negotiating effectively with claimants and legal counsel; utilizing a computer and relevant software applications; communication, interpersonal skills as applied to interaction with coworkers, supervisors, the general public, etc. sufficient to exchange or convey information and to receive work direction.
HOW TO APPLY:
To be considered, applicants must submit a cover letter, resume, completed Pierce Transit application form and supplemental questionnaire which clearly show how you meet the minimum qualifications listed above. Application materials may be obtained at http://www.piercetransit.org/careers. Completed materials may be submitted to email@example.com, via fax at 253-984-8224, or to PO Box 99070, Lakewood, WA 98496-0070.
Applicants who, in the judgement of the Human Resources Department, most closely meet the requirements for this position as listed above will be invited for an interview. Selection of applicants for referral to an oral board will be determined by evaluation of the application materials. It is the responsibility of the applicant to supply sufficient information and detail to permit the Agency to properly evaluate their qualifications, skills and abilities as they relate to the position.
Opened: October 22, 2014
Early Native Learning Liaison
Link to job description: Highline Public Schools Early Native Learning Liaison
The job of Early Native Learning Liaison supports equitable access to high quality culturally-responsive early learning opportunities for American Indian/Alaska Native early learners and to significantly increase school readiness, with the belief that highlighting the importance of American Indian/Alaska Native cultures, history, language, and knowledge systems can improve academic outcomes for AIAN students K-12. In the fall of 2013, the Highline Public Schools Native Education Program launched development and implementation of a strategic framework for the Highline Public Schools Native Education Program’s activities and service objectives, the Plan for Native Student Success, and the Partnering for Early Native Learner Success Project (PENLSP) a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-supported project which aims, in its first year grant period, to improve services to the AIAN community in the area of early childhood education by 1) Significantly increasing enrollments of AIAN early learners in Highline ECEAP, Educare, and Head Start programs, and 2) Significantly increasing Native kindergarten readiness and K-3 academic outcomes.
Native Student Literacy Support Specialist
Link to job description: Highline Public Schools Native Student Literacy Support Specialist
The Native Student Literacy Support Specialist provides oral language and reading instruction to struggling American Indian/Alaska Native readers (K-8) and evaluates and implements culturally responsive literacy strategies that increase student success for American Indian/Alaska Native students. The Native Student Literacy Support Specialist works cooperatively with school-based staff, Literacy Coordinator/specialists, the Department of Language Learning, the Native Education Program, and other staff and administrators as applicable, to develop and implement culturally responsive research-based, data-driven, strategies and interventions based on district literacy frameworks and best or promising practices in literacy interventions specifically for American Indian/Alaska Native learners. The Native Student Literacy Support Specialist will work closely with the Director of Language Learning, Literacy Coordinator/literacy specialists who provide structured support across sites, and the Native Education Program Manager to support the implementation of adopted literacy frameworks, and adaptation of ELL strategies for American Indian/Alaska Native learners.
DSHS Developmental Disabilities Administration – State Operated Living Alternatives (SOLA) Region 2, has posted opportunities for 2 permanent, full-time Attendant Counselor Manager positions in the Seattle – Lake City Office. Additional information is available online at www.careers.wa.gov using this link to referral number 10154 or 10155